International Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology publishes original scientific research pertaining to action of chemicals, drugs, or natural products to animals or humans. Articles address mechanistic approaches to physiological, biochemical, cellular, or molecular understanding of toxicologic/pathologic lesions and to methods used to describe these responses. Papers concerned with alternatives to the use of experimental animals are encouraged. In addition to original research articles, short communications/notes, concise and current review articles are also welcome. All contributions shall be rigorously refereed and selecting on the basis of quality and originality of the work as well as the breadth of interest to readers.